Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Difference Between Sessions and Cookies in PHP

The Difference Between Sessions and Cookies in PHP In PHP, visitor information designated to be used across the site can be stored in either sessions  or cookies. Both of them accomplish much the same thing. The main difference between cookies and sessions is that information stored in a cookie is stored on the visitors browser, and information stored in a session is not- it is stored at the web server. This difference determines what each is best suited for. A Cookie Resides on the User's Computer Your website can be set to place a cookie on a users computer. That cookie maintains information in the users machine until the information is deleted by the user. A person may have a username and password to your website. That information can be saved as a cookie on the visitors computer, so there is no need for him to log in to your website on each  visit. Common uses for cookies include authentication, storage of site preferences, and shopping cart items. Although you can store almost any text in a browser cookie, a user can block cookies or delete them at any time. If, for example, your websites shopping cart utilizes cookies, shoppers who block cookies in their browsers cant shop at your website. Cookies can be disabled or edited by the visitor. Do not use cookies to store sensitive data. Session Information Resides on the Web Server A session is server-side information  intended to exist only throughout the visitors interaction with the website. Only a unique identifier is stored on the client side. This token is passed to the web server when the visitors browser requests your  HTTP address. That  token matches your website with the visitors information while the user is at your site. When the user closes the website, the session ends, and your website loses access to the information. If you dont need any permanent data, sessions are usually the way to go. They are a little easier to use, and they can be as large as needed, in comparison with cookies, which are relatively small. Sessions cannot be disabled or edited by the visitor.  Ã‚   So, if you have a site requiring a login, that information is better served as a cookie, or the user would be forced to log in every time he visits. If you prefer tighter security and the ability to control the data and when it expires, sessions work  best. You can, of course, get the best of both worlds. When you know what each does, you can use a combination of cookies and sessions to make your site work exactly the way you want it to work.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Unit 7 Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Unit 7 Assignment - Essay Example Given that the society consists of people who can afford to purchase drugs at high prices and others do not have the capacity, it should not impose limits on pricing. It should allow the practice of price discrimination, so as to ensure those with financial difficulties access the drugs at a fair price. More to these, it should encourage public subsidies to enhance access to critical care, as well as conform to its moral obligation to its citizens. In addition to this, limiting prices would result in low volumes of production in the industry, thus making it inefficient (Reinhardt, 2001). The government should not impose limits on the amounts purchased as it cannot control the illness of its people. Most elderly citizens in the country have chronic ailments; hence limiting the amounts to be purchased would interfere with their medication process. More to these, the rest of the population faces a range of diseases, which require unlimited access to medication for their recovery. Therefore, such limits should be discouraged as they can reduce the life expectancy of the population, thus hinder their contribution to the growth of the economy as their productivity level decreases (Kleinke, 2001). These financial figures give the incomes and expenses of the three hospitals. The expenses of the hospital are quite high, making two of the hospitals operate at loses. This follows the 1.0 income expenses ratio, which shows that the hospitals incur huge expenses to operate. Most of the expenses relate to the programs of the hospitals, which mean that the health conditions of the people visiting the hospitals are critical. Watuaga medical center, for example, spends 92% on expenses related to the health, while Ashe uses 81% of its expenses to finance such costs. Ashe memorial hospital manages to earn an annual profit. Consequent to this, the hospital has the capacity to set aside a substantial amount of the profit, and invest it in promoting

Monday, February 10, 2020

Juvenile Justice Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Juvenile Justice Policy - Essay Example They are not wary of what will happen next because it is their choice. They took that risk with the rationality of mind that it will be for the better. But the cases I have stated above are something that can not be applied to all societies and countries. For one apparent reason not every family can afford to send their children to school. Another reason is that there is an issue about removing children away from their family and sending them to a residential schools or boarding schools. This is a policy that many people are against with because there is the violation of the freedom to choose. Affected families have also stated different repercussions of the policy to the children and to the families of the children. Since it is a policy, no one can go against with it. But the question remains, is the policy really effective Do the policy makers uphold the objectives of the policy And have they really thought of welfare of the kids Or they are just serving their vested interests In the United States there is a policy wherein the Juvenile or the Family Court has given the authority to remove the children from their homes because of the following reasons: 1.) The child has been delinquent; 2.) The child has no parents making him or her dependent or abandoned and the child has no guardian; 3.) The needs of the child are not supplemented by his or her family - he is neglected; and lastly, 4.) The child is being abused in any forms or in any way. Aside from this policy, there is another existing policy that is similar to the one I have mentioned above but is very different in terms of the grounds why there is a need for removing kids from their home. The policy is very popular in North America where you can find most of the American-Indian. And the policy is removing Native American children from their homes and sending them into residential schools where according to the authorities it would help the children to learn civilizing lifestyle. Thus making them 'civ ilized' people. Historical Justification of the Policy and Its Implementation It all started when European Missionaries came to North America and lives with them. Through their observations they noticed that the people are 'uncivilized'. So they thought that it is best for the community of the Native Americans if they would separate the children away from their families. By doing so, the children will be taught on how to be a 'civilized' person (following of course the European lifestyle). The European Missionaries then build residential schools. They have stated two reasons, and these are: 1.) the very apparent reason is separating the children away from their family; and 2.) they believe that native culture is not worthy to preserve. That time they have in mind and they do believe that native culture is no use and soon it will eventually die. They also believe that all people would develop into someone like the civilized Europeans who consider themselves as advanced. The European Missionaries run this policy but in the long run the Canadian churches and the government helped the missionaries in implementing the policy. It is then that it became an official Canadian policy in support for educating American-Indian Children. The residential schoo

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Work Experience Essay Example for Free

Work Experience Essay Thursday, a new day, I was actually looking forward to seeing what today had to bring. I was right to wonder as today we were doing the normal lessons of Maths, P. E, English and History, which we do Thursdays, but today we were also going to do painting. The children were excited, and so was I. After our fun last lesson of the day of painting it was time to pack up and go home. I, on the otherhand had to stay and clean up, which I did not mind as I had seen how much the children enjoyed painting and just the smiles on their faces gave me motivation and me smile too. Friday, the day I had at first been looking forward to but was now dreading all week had come. I was upset at the thought of leaving the children that had made me feel so welcome and had made me smile not stop for the past two weeks. The day was all right. It started the same way and was pretty much the same, apart from the gut feeling I had. As the day went on I tried my hardest to explain to the children that I was going back to my own school, to do my work. They did not understand, no matter how much I explained. After two weeks it was over, it was the end of the day on Friday and I was going to have to say goodbye. All of sudden two children missing and five minutes later they returned with a big card for me. I was very emotional at this point as I held back my tears. In the card they had all signed it and had drawn pictures of themselves. I also had six pictures that Ross, Daryl, Chloe, Steph and Katie had drawn for me. As the children left they all hugged me and took a handful of marshmallows, which I had brought in for them. I remember saying goodbye to all of them and holding back my tears. There was of course two favourites, isnt there always but these two were special to me as they had me feel so comfortable around them and had always been grabbing my hand at every chance. These two children were Chloe and Daryl. Although me and Daryl did have our moments, like when he decided that he had just about enough of me and he stuck his finger up at me, which to be honest was quite funny and when Chloe gave me a photo of herself and her granddad which I of course returned to her tray without her knowing. I then picked up my bag and walked out of Ruislip Gardens Primary School one last time. I left and caught my bus home feeling sad and shedding a tear or two. From work experience I feel that I have matured a lot and that I definitely know that this is definitely the line of work I am interested in. I have below written my own poem of my experience of work experience. The moment that I first saw it I was terrified, but little did I no the children were going to be right by my side. The children they were lovely and the staff they were too, Things did not turn out how I had expected and all the things I had imagined they were not at all true. I am glad that I had gone there to work and act mature, But I am definite I am eager to start the real World of work and this I am sure. Now there is one thing I would want to say and I want everyone at Ruislip Gardens to know too, I would like to say this and I mean it, THANK-YOU.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Greek Cypriot Leaders :: History

Greek Cypriot Leaders What is the Cyprus question? Let us hear the answer from the Greek Cypriot and Greek leaders themselves: "I have struggled for the union of Cyprus with Greece, and Enosis will always be my deep national aspiration as it is the aspiration of all Greek Cypriots. My national creed has never changed and my career as a national leader has shown no inconsistency or contradiction. I have accepted independence instead of Enosis because certain external conditions and factors have not allowed a free choice." (Makarios told Le Point on 19 February 1973) How did they intend to achieve it? "Unless this Turkish community forming part of the Turkish race which has been the terrible enemy of Hellenism is expelled, the duty of the heroes of EOKA can never be considered as terminated" (Makarios declared on 4 September 1963) - The present Greek Cypriot leader, Glafkos Clerides in his memoirs entitled "Cyprus: My Deposition" described the Cyprus question as a conflict between "the Greek Cypriot preoccupation... that Cyprus should be a Greek Cypriot stale with protected Turkish Cypriot minority" and "the Turkish preoccupation ... to defeat any such effort and maintain the partnership concept ". - "Just as the Greek Cypriot preoccupation was that Cyprus should be a Creek Cypriot state, with a protected Turkish Cypriot minority, the Turkish preoccupation was !o defeat any such effort and to maintain the partnership concept, which in their opinion the Zurich Agreement created between the two communities. The conflict, therefore, was a conflict of principle and for that principle both sides were prepared to go on arguing and even, if need be, to fight, rather . The same principle is still in conflict, even today, though a federal solution has been accepted - and though a federation is nothing more than a constitutional partnership of the component states, provinces or cantons which make up the federation." (From Mr Glafkos Clerides's memoirs "My Deposition" Vol. 3, page 105.) How the UN, the US and other Related Counties' Officials See Cyprus Question: - The UN secretary-general, in his report to the Security Council dated 8 March 1990 (S/21183), described Cyprus as "the common home of the Greek Cypriot community and of the Turkish Cypriot community. Their relationship is not one of majority and minority, but one of two communities in the State of Cyprus. " This description was also reflected in the UN Set of Ideas endorsed by the Security Council.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Homoeroticism in Bram Stoker’s Dracula

The evolution of time and the changes in socio-cultural faculties directly reflect on the type and the mainstream of culture within the literary and visual arts genre. Following the parade and proliferation of ‘feminism’ and ‘women empowerment’ in literature and popular media, a new type of theme evolved or branched out—homoeroticism—which had invaded the literary categories. Homoeroticism generally pertains to ‘homo’ or same-sex depiction of love and desire (Murray and Roscoe, 1997). Perhaps one of the most famous and horrifying stories of the twentieth and the contemporary century is the Bram Stoker’s Dracula.While the narrative is typically horrendous and strangely lulling to the reader, there is probably a deeper implication on the psychological responses, which hinges on ‘deviant behavior’ of the story’s main character Count Dracula. Strangely, the character Dracula is an atypical archetype of the â €Å"third† genre. In the subsequent paper, an analysis on the psychological behavior [and his erstwhile characteristics] of Bram Stoker’s Dracula will be conducted and correlate it to the possibility of ‘homoerotic’ inundations that normally defines ‘gay’ literature.Additionally, the paper aims to define the ‘psychological state/conditioning/behavior of the author Bram Stoker by investigating given and known literatures/readings on his biography. Such undertaking can also possibly suggest the presence/absence of homoerotic front of the author.II. The Third Gender and Queer Theory Modernity in the late 1960’s to the contemporary period explores the fundamentals and the notion and ideologies of heterosexuality which extends to thematic concepts in literature.The tenets of gender is questioned and hereto put forth as social equity, an underlying idea of democratization, contests the precepts of gender and sexuality. What is biologica lly ‘straight’ is devolved with identity reconstruction and partiality towards sexual orientation. Accordingly, the new gender—the third gender—a referral to gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and closets play ‘minority’ in the modern society. Homosexuals, in its simplest sense, are the non-heterosexuals. They have distinct preference for the same biological sexual orientation.They are the basket term for gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and closets. Faculties of psychosocial behavior explore the deviance and the non-normative sexual practice of homosexuals. It is acknowledged that gays are ‘psychosocial’ deviance, not a sickness but a social reality. The queer society, bearing some forms of behavior and principles, and language materializes in several literatures as some queer theorist claim. Thus there is manifestation and imposition of ‘third gender’ structures and labels from an external mainstream culture of the ‘homosex ual’ minors into literature.Here we explore the unconscious inclusion of pronounced homosexuality of the author Bram Stoker through the vampire Dracula. Bram Stoker’s vampiric Dracula is thus scrutinized using queer theory—process of discovering and exposing underlying meanings, distinctions, and relations of power in larger culture that others oversimplify. The capitalization of overt heterosexuality of the vampiric Dracula is examined overlaying the bounds of the character as simply being a ‘blood-sucking’ un-dead organism.A major proponent of the queer theorist Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and the Psychosocial Principle of Sigmund Freud will be utilized as a tool for understanding [the literature and] Dracula and explicate the vampire’s [methods] of homoeroticism.III. A Background on Bram Stoker’s Dracula and Eroticism Dracula is an epistolary novel—-consisting of a series of diary entries, telegrams, and letters from the characters , as well as fictional clippings from the Whitby and London newspapers and phonograph cylinders—originally published in 1897 and authored by Bram Stoker.Its’ literary classification [/ genre] is extensive covering that of ‘vampire literature’, ‘horror fiction’, ‘gothic’ and ‘invasion literature’. The novel enjoyed the peak of its literary success in the twentieth century with the proliferation of television and media; several adaptations of the novel’s ‘vampire’ found in theater and film interpretations [Dracula (1931); The Horror of Dracula (1958); Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992); Nosferatu (1922)].Modern accounts always of Dracula always universally agree that it exudes and distorts strong sexual energy: What has become clearer and clearer, particularly in the fin de siecle years of the twentieth century, is that the novel's power has its source in the sexual implications of the blood exchange betwe en the vampire and his victims†¦ Dracula has embedded in it a very disturbing psychosexual allegory whose meaning I am not sure Stoker entirely understood: that there is a demonic force at work in the world whose intent is to eroticize women.In Dracula we see how that force transforms Lucy Westenra, a beautiful nineteen-year-old virgin, into a shameless slut (Wolf 1992). Strong ‘dammed’ sexual energy either repressed or expressed, agitation, fear, anxiety, and excitement are inundated in the Dracula. The ‘demonic’ and ‘psychosexual’ allegories of the Dracula suggest inversion, a repression behind the monstrosity, a Freudian analogy of desires and hetero/homosexuality.III. Homoerotism and Dracula Homoerotism refers to the illustration of homosexual love and desire manifested through visual arts and literature.Although, it is more of a modern concept, Sedgwick acknowledged the pre-existence of such ‘process’ in the Victorian Era that hinges on pathological explanation of the ‘homosexuals’ veering on the predisposition towards both depravity and paederasty (Kaylor 2006). Dracula contains several obvious and not-so-obvious hints on the homoerotism that probably characterizes the restrained movement of the homosexuals of the Late Victorian Era. A. Parodies of Sexual Excesses of Dracula The narrative of the story contains heavy sexual undertones and indulgences that encompass even that of the human characters of the story.Jonathan Harker exhibits sybaritic tendencies towards the dark and desirous evil passions during his encounter with the Brides of Dracula: All three had brilliant white teeth, that shone like pearls against the ruby of their voluptuous lips. There was something about them that made me uneasy, some longing and at the same time deadly fear. I felt in my heart a wicked and burning desire that they would kiss me with those red lips. Stokes brings insight to the darker passions that a re discretely enjoyed in the Late Victorian Era. Sex is not a sacred act but an indulgence of the senses and brain.The conscious aim is to explore sexuality in its most banal and radical sense. Through the Brides of Dracula, Stokes suggests the exploration of multiple sex partners. There is no limit to sexual freedom; it exceeds gender and number, even. Such decadence or feast is patterned from the Greek paedaristic tradition and is patterned throughout the cascade of the story. The excitement of the underlying sexual tones is unmistakable and obviously intentional given the pariah treatment for the ‘unconventional’ during the Victorian Period. The homoerotic desires will continually persist throughout the entirety of the gothic novel.The eroticism for the narrative is strangely luring and animalistic. Dracula bades Harker into the world of secrecy, indulgence and delight, saying â€Å"Welcome to my house! Enter freely. Go safely, and leave something of the happiness y ou bring! †¦ I am Dracula; and I bid you welcome. † Control is mocked; Desire, satisfaction and all that suggests [sexual] indulgence are offered by Dracula. Beneath the civilized veneer of the aristocrat Dracula lay a perverted nature which implies the status of the homosexuals and the repressed sexuality of the stuffy Victorian Period.Sexual harem, incestuous relationships, and men-to-men relations are discretely portrayed in the Bram Stoke’s Dracula albeit in a hyperbolic manner. The Brides of Dracula are not ‘legal’ brides but in actuality, family relations of Dracula who bear a striking and similar morphological features with him which suggests, on the long run, a degree of incestuous relationship enjoyed by them. Aside from sexual harem and a hint of incest, men-to-men relation has played an important element in the development of the sexual undertones of the Gothic novel.Ambiguity in sexual preference and the flexibility of Dracula for sexual pr edisposition is implicit when he admonishes his Brides who want to ravish Harker, â€Å"This man belongs to me! † Such possession and temperamental display of possessive attitude differs from his statement on—â€Å"Yes, I too can love. You yourselves can tell it from the past. Is it not so? Well, now I promise you that when I am done with him you shall kiss him at your will. † Dracula psychosexual conditioning is not clear.However, it is asserted that the ambiguity and the his sexual inversions may have been an indicator for the confusion and the psychological meanderings of a homosexuals presented in a strict and stuffy society. B. Effeminate Dracula Perhaps the most striking quality of Dracula is his striking and handsome appearance which deviates from the ‘ugly’ vampires of Eastern European folklore: [Dracula's] face was a strong – a very strong – aquiline, with high bridge of the thin nose and peculiarly arched nostrils; with lofty domed forehead, and hair growing scantily round the temples, but profusely elsewhere.His eyebrows were very massive, almost meeting over the nose, and with bushy hair that seemed to curl in its own profusion. The mouth, so far as I could see it under the heavy moustache, was fixed and rather cruel looking, with peculiarly sharp white teeth; these protruded over the lips, whose remarkable ruddiness showed astonishing vitality in a man of his years. For the rest, his ears were pale and at the tops extremely pointed; the chin was broad and strong, and the cheeks firm though thin. The general effect was one of extraordinary pallor. The general effect of Dracula is a Byronic ideology of ‘handsome’ man.Beauty is not just a female concept but for the male Dracula as well with the perfection of his features which are highly popular during the Victorian times. The allusion of having ‘red’ lips and ‘long’ pointed nails are physical attributes or endowme nts of female genre. Additionally, Dracula’s innate effeminate characteristics extends to his housekeeping capacities—maintaining Jonathan Harker’s bed and readying of his meals. Dracula is representation of the ‘beautiful ‘morphological male, not necessarily masculine but neither does it approach the feminine standards.C. Unmasking the Monstrosity of Dracula through Queer Theory As Sedwick puts it, to gain a better understanding of the third gender, it is necessary that a thorough study must be conducted that transcends the barriers the standard binary oppositions that limit understanding on sexuality. A careful examination of the psychological constructs of Dracula reveals the ‘heteroerotic’ chasm behinds his monstrosity and vampiric qualities. One of the major proponents behind a true understanding of individuality and motivation is Sigmund Freud.Freud posits that unconscious portion of the mind, the submerged ‘thoughts’ as one puts it, is the major motivating force behind an individual’s actions and thoughts. What is essential is not the actual conscious thoughts but the unconscious thoughts. Could it be that behind the monstrosity of Dracula lay a barrage of confused emotions on gender position and preference, which, is poured into his ‘vampiric tendencies? Dracula is portrayed as an infernal monster by Dr. Van Helsing: The Nosferatu do not die like the bee when he sting once. He is only stronger, and being stronger, have yet more power to work evil.This vampire which is amongst us is of himself so strong in person as twenty men, he is of cunning more than mortal, for his cunning be the growth of ages, he have still the aids of necromancy, which is, as his etymology imply, the divination by the dead, and all the dead that he can come nigh to are for him at command, he is brute, and more than brute, he is devil in callous, and the heart of him is not, he can, within his range, direct t he elements, the storm, the fog, the thunder, he can command all the meaner things, the rat, and the owl, and the bat, the moth, and the fox, and the wolf, he can grow and become small, and he can at times vanish and come unknown. The hyperbolic portrayal of the monstrous proportions of Dracula’s supernatural capacities denotes a deeper meaning behind the literaty texts.An important venue to consider is the role of speech acts which is use as labels for the gay ‘lingo. ’ Beyond morphology and monstrous appearance and punctuated by speech acts and behavior, covers an ambiguity, a sexual inversion that characterizes the hidden and anonymous desires of the third gender minority in the Victorian Period. The dissolution of the boundaries of the self and the thorough subversion of the conventional Victorian gender codes, constrains the mobility of sexual desire of Dracula. Dracula exhibits erratic behavior and sexual excesses that denotes the male activity or supremacy of the old times. Dracula secretely covets Jonathan Harker during his address to his brides—He is mine!Such statement defies the normative concept of heterosexual relations; Dracula, in this single statement of truth exposes once his secrets and his homosexual side. The repeating element of the story—Dracula is a highly sexed creature which spews the wickedness and vagaries on sexual enjoyment. The annotation of the Vampiric mouth is corollary to an orifice that denotes the hidden soul of the count: â€Å"There was a deliberate voluptuousness which was both thrilling and repulsive†¦I could see in the moonlight the moisture shining on the red tongue as it lapped the white sharp teeth†. The eroticism of the vampiric mouth presents the dis-ambiguity between males and females. Dracula constantly victimizes local individual with no ‘gender preferences’ sinking his sharp teeth into an erogenous spot on the neck.On the whole scale, such vampiric qual ities reveal lurid representations on the binary subversion of gender. Woman is not just ‘receptors’ or ‘vessels’ [sunk with Dracula fangs] and neither are men simply the ‘penetrator’. The role of Draconian mouth extends beyond hyperbole into an equivocation of gender roles. Such is the power of the mouth! The Brides of Dracula have the equal capacity to ‘sink’ their sharp teeth, an allusion to females’ position in ‘sexual’ proclivities. The transfusion of blood and any bloodily fluids across humans is not just about sucking the life force but on the whole this pertains to the unity and social equity beyond gender categorization.Dracula being a homosexual extremist ‘transfers’ blood when sucking; an equivocation of gender roles and a unwitting question of the association of the gay minority into the bilaterally determined society. Blood ties and acceptance. Blood. This is what ties humans together a nd the rejection of Dracula’s blood coupled with the fear and anxiety that characterizes the society during vampire hunts presents a parallelization of the misunderstood and an unaccepted presence of gay roles. The Dracula is a ‘monster’, and ‘a new order’ of humanity that is not understood by the old Victorian society. The monster presents un-comfort, distention, and somewhat weird and curiously entrancing but otherwise shunned away because it is not normal.Heterosexual association of Dracula with ‘women’, his imminent victimization of them presents Dracula as not simply just the ‘un-choosey’ attacker; within the psychological premise, the deliberate choice of Dracula for women is a ‘displacement method’ for his unfulfilled sexual ambition with Jonathan Harker. Dracula’s desire with a male Harker and his victimization is always postponed by a series of events. In the end, to alleviate his sexual frustrat ion for the male species, Dracula poured his frustrations in extreme proportions in the female genre. Dracula’s homoerotic desires is gratified by his three Brides; Dracula’s daughters offer masculine version for penetration with Harker as the recipient:Lower and lower went her head as the lips went below the range of my mouth and the chin and seemed to fasten on my throat†¦I could feel the soft, shivering touch of the lips on the supersensitive skin of my throat, and the hard dents of the two sharp teeth, just touching and pausing there. I closed my eyes in a languorous ecstasy and waited—waited with a beating heart. This is the final and most pronounced text wherein there is a direct representation of male ‘penetration’ vis-a-vis the female anatomy (from the mouth down anyway) and the referral to languor state ‘ecstasy’ prior to penetration. Harker anticipated the penetrated ‘waited—waited with a beating heart but th e act was not bound to happen since Dracula barges in and shouts, â€Å"How dare you touch him, any of you?How dare you cast eyes on him when I had forbidden it? Back I tell you! This man belongs to me. † The interruption suggests, more so the line, ‘This man belongs to me’, denotes homoeroticism on the part of Dracula, but such libidinous desires will never be realized its focal recipient Harker but instead will be displaced with other women. There are actually no male-to-male aggressions on the narrative but rather suggestive implications covered under sexual undertones and motivation inset under the Draco’s language. IV. Homoeroticism and Bram Stoker The publication of Dracula and the homoerotic themes scandalized under the narrative, created a question on the motivation of the author Bram Stoker.It has been noted above that the horror story is a social commentary on the misunderstanding and the treatment of homosexuals as well as exploration on the â⠂¬Ëœhomoerotism’ of Dracula. Perhaps Dracula is merely an extension of the true author. We contend that the vividness of the character Dracula is either a representation of the closet Bram Stoker or if not his close friend and correspondent, the multi-sex oriented (bisexual, paederastic and homosexual [even metrosexual with current standards] Oscar Wilde. It must be realized that Stokes began writing the story one month after Oscar Wilde was legally cross-examined for sodomy. The ignorance of connection between the two was due to the absence of literature that would connote Wilde’s name.Yet what is not apparently there may exist there by using using deliberate names to fulfill the gaps in communication. It is very possible that Dracula is Wilde; a horror allegory for a gay closet ‘trapped’ and ‘afraid’ during the trial. The Oscar Wilde trial is one of the most scandalous and expository nature of the Victorian underground in the nineteenth cent ury. The trial commences the legal prosecution of the gays under the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885 which states the condemnation of homosexual acts not amounting to buggery. The crisis of the closet is untenable; whereas Stokes wanted to embraced the ideology of homosexuality, common fear for persecution of gays forced him to be discrete and displaced his ideas on Dracula.Stoker has been many times associated with Withman and his open correspondent with him. His admires Whitman for ‘function[ing] as badges in homosexual recognition in England fin-de-siecle. ’ Stoker writes an insidious letter to Whitman: I would like to call you Comrade and to talk to you as men who are not poets do not often talk. I think that at first a man would be ashamed, for a man cannot in a moment break the habit of comparative reticence that has become a second nature to him, but I know I would not be long ashamed to be natural before you†¦. You have shaken off the shackles and your w ings are free. I have the shackles on my soldiers and still—but I have no wings.If you are going to read this letter any further I should tell you that I am not prepared to give up all else so far as words go. The ‘love letter’ address to Whitman suggests the fight for gay freedom of movement vis-a-vis his literary writings. The metaphysical connection between the two men is demonstrated in the letters. Gays are not simply gays because of their sexual quirks or fancies but more on their emotional predisposition. As Stokes further asserted, â€Å"How sweet a thing it is for a strong healthy man with a woman’s eye and a child’s wishes to feel that he can speak so to a man who can be if he wishes a father, and brother and wife to his soul. †Stokes believed that he is different from the normative ‘kind’ of human species. It is not known if Stoker’s presumed gayness resulted from the classical Oedipus imbalance or is a genetica lly determined trait. However it is clear that he identifies himself to be a different kind, those who practiced sodomy and has distinct preference for young males. While it is true that he is a proud member of the third class, tradition and fear of experiencing societal pariah urges him towards complacency and discretion. Stoker cannot openly write his intellectual positions on the assertion of third gender roles in the Victorian society and their so-called coming out.Stokes later became a member of the organization of gays with Whitman as a ‘special’ comrade. Oscar Wilde’s trial prove to be the turning point of decisions for his literary career. The infusion of homoeroticism within Dracula is so discretely hidden that, for a common reader, Dracula is nothing but bat-like demon. Within the realms of persecution, Dracula is perhaps the safest route for gay literary ideology and at the same time, avoiding inspection from the anti-homosexual Victorian law enforcers . Wilde’s trial forces the author Bram Stoker to secrecy. Irving also enjoys a strong emotional discourse with Irving, a gay poet: In those moments of our mutual emotion he too had found a friend. Soul had looked into soul!From that hour began the friendship as profound, as close, as lasting can be between two men†¦And the sight of his picture before me, with those loving words, the record of a time of deep emotion and full understanding of us both, each for a time of deep emotion and full understanding of us both, each for the other, unmans me once again as I write. The souls of the two distinguished individuals commune; it borders beyond physical adoration. They understand each other’s needs and ambitions depicting mutuality among men—a mirror of homosexuality that is very misleading and the parameters rather abstract. Stoker’s love for Irving is open, honest and metaphysical; there were no records to the consummation of their love but Stoker, many times, admitted to the alluding most profound male relationship of all time. Note that in Dracula, there is no consummation between the vampire Dracula and the human Jonathan Harker.Perhaps Stoker wants to project the essential element of third gender relations which hinges on emotional and intellectual connections. That is perhaps, why, Stoker condemns the vulgar representation of the third gender of Oscar Wilde. Oscar Wilde, during his trial, exposing the darker sides of the third sex legion. He commented, â€Å"Vices so flaggitous, so opposed to nature, even in its lowest and crudest forms that the poignancy of moral disgust is lost in the horror. † Stoker argues that some gay literature are censorious and exploits and denigrates the essentials of gayhood. Stoker always asserts discretion even in his letters and literary works.Such discretion fed under rigidity of censorship allowed him to explore the subtextual tools in implicating homoeroticism within his Dracula story. Wilde was Stoker’s primary rival but whether he sympathizes with his enemy’s crimes is another story. One thing is certain: the Oscar Wilde trial forced Bram Stoker to methodically used discretion in several of his correspondence. V. Conclusion The paper discussed the homoeroticism in Dracula and the psycho social ideologies that lay basic foundation to the horrorific nature of the epistolary literature. Beyond horror, the Freudian theory of subconscious explained the motives of the antagonist Dracula. Sedwick’s principle on exceeding structured binary opposition to categorized the atypical Dracula.In understanding Dracula and its’ author Bram Stoker, subtextual language and discrete elements embedded within the horror story and the correspondence of Stoker to some of his friends reveal insights in the subversive gay literature. Homoeroticism of Dracula reveals the culture of third gender during the late Victorian period. Dracula, a homosexual closet bey ond the hyperbolic monster demonstrates effeminate morphology and behavior. More so his strange attraction to Jonathan Harker. Displacement behavior explained his opinion on sexual gratification. Dracula, is perhaps, Wilde, a representation of the archenemy of Bram Stokes during his collegiate years.It is the literary by-product of the censorious laws of old England which was heightened during Wilde’s trial.Works CitedDalby, R. and Hughes, W.. Bram Stoker: A Bibliography. Westcliff-on-Sea: Desert Island Books, 2005.Freedman, Alfred M. and Harold I. Kaplan. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry . Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, 1967.Hughes, William. Beyond Dracula: Bram Stoker's Fiction and its Cultural Contexts Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000.McKenna, N. The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde. Random House, 2004. Sedgwick, E. K. Epistemology of the Closet. California: UP, 1990.Wolf, L. . Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Signet Classic Edition. USA: Penguin, 1990.

Monday, January 6, 2020

How to Make Water From Hydrogen and Oxygen

Water is the common name for dihydrogen monoxide or H2O. The molecule is produced from numerous chemical reactions, including the synthesis reaction from its elements, hydrogen, and oxygen. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is: 2 H2 O2 → 2 H2O How to Make Water In theory, its easy to make water from hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. Mix the two gases together, add a spark or sufficient heat to provide the activation energy to start the reaction, and presto—instant water. Merely mixing the two gases at room temperature, however, wont do anything, like hydrogen and oxygen molecules in the air dont spontaneously form water. Energy must be supplied to break the covalent bonds that hold H2 and O2Â  molecules together. The hydrogen cations and oxygen anions are then free to react with each other, which they do because of their electronegativity differences. When the chemical bonds re-form to make water, additional energy is released, which propagates the reaction. The net reaction is highly exothermic, meaning a reaction that is accompanied by the release of heat. Two Demonstrations One common chemistry demonstration is to fill a small balloon with hydrogen and oxygen and to touch the balloon—from a distance and behind a safety shield—with a burning splint. A safer variation is to fill a balloon with hydrogen gas and to ignite the balloon in the air. The limited oxygen in the air reacts to form water but in a more controlled reaction. Yet another easy demonstration is to bubble hydrogen into soapy water to form hydrogen gas bubbles. The bubbles float because they are lighter than air. A long-handled lighter or burning splint at the end of a meter stick can be used to ignite them to form water. You can use hydrogen from a compressed gas tank or from any of several chemical reactions (e.g., reacting acid with metal). However you do the reaction, its best to wear ear protection and maintain a safe distance from the reaction. Start small, so that you know what to expect. Understanding the Reaction French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier named hydrogen, Greek for water-forming, based on its reaction with oxygen, another element Lavoisier named, meaning acid-producer. Lavoisier was fascinated by combustion reactions. He devised an apparatus to form water from hydrogen and oxygen to observe the reaction. Essentially, his setup employed two bell jars—one for hydrogen and one for oxygen—that fed into a separate container. A sparking mechanism initiated the reaction, forming water. You can construct an apparatus the same way as long as you are careful to control the flow rate of oxygen and hydrogen so that you dont try to form too much water at once. You also should use a heat- and shock-resistant container. Role of Oxygen While other scientists of the time were familiar with the process of forming water from hydrogen and oxygen, Lavoisier discovered the role of oxygen in combustion. His studies eventually disproved the phlogiston theory, which had proposed that a fire-like element called phlogiston was released from matter during combustion. Lavoisier showed that a gas must have mass for combustion to occur and that the mass was conserved following the reaction. Reacting hydrogen and oxygen to produce water was an excellent oxidation reaction to study because nearly all the mass of water comes from oxygen. Why We Cant Just Make Water? A 2006 report by the United Nations estimated that 20 percent of people on the planet dont have access to clean drinking water. If its so hard to purify water or desalinate sea water, you might be wondering why we dont just make water from its elements. The reason? In a word—BOOM! Reacting hydrogen and oxygen is basically burning hydrogen gas, except rather than using the limited amount of oxygen in the air, youre feeding the fire. During combustion, oxygen is added to a molecule, which produces water in this reaction. Combustion also releases a lot of energy. Heat and light are produced so quickly that a shock wave expands outward. Basically, you have an explosion. The more water you make at once, the bigger the explosion. It works for launching rockets, but youve seen videos where that went horribly wrong. The Hindenburg explosion is another example of what happens when a lot of hydrogen and oxygen get together. So, we can make water from hydrogen and oxygen, and chemists and educators often do—in small quantities. Its not practical to use the method on a large scale because of the risks and because its much more expensive to purify hydrogen and oxygen to feed the reaction than it is to make water using other methods, to purify contaminated water, or to condense water vapor from the air.